Conjunctions are used to join or connect two parts of a sentence.

- John and Linda are good friends
- I would have come with you but I have work to do.
- She is a great singer yet she is jobless.
- I travel early because trams are less crowded then.

The words “and”, “but”, “yet”, “because” are all used to join two parts of a sentence.

• and
• but
• or
• nor
• for
• yet

• although
• because
• since

You can identify conjunctions in three ways:
• Form
• Function
• Position

1. Form: There are 3 forms,

• Single worded (and, but, yet, so, for)

• Compound (as long as, in order that)

• Co-relative (so…that)

2. Function: There are 2 functions of the connectors. They are,

• Coordinating: Joining two grammatically equal parts (words or phrases) of a sentence. (Sonia and Tania went shopping)

• Subordinating: Joining dependent clause to main clause. (Because we were bored, we went out)

3. Position:

• A Coordinating conjunction always positions itself between the words or phrases it is joining or coordinating.

• Subordinating usually positions itself at the start of a subordinate clause.

There are 2 classification types:
• Coordinating
• Subordinating

1. Coordinating: The 7 coordinating connectors are for, and, nor, but, yet, or, so. They are short and simple words commonly used in English.

• I love to drive and swim.
• Tina loves jogging, but Sonia loves sleeping.

The first coordinates “drive” and “swim”. The second coordinates the two phrases in italics.

When “and” is used as a coordinating connector at a list’s end, commas may or may not be used. Both ways are acceptable.

• I eat lamb, shrimp, fish and goat meat.
• I eat lamb, shrimp, fish, and goat meat.

2. Subordinating: Most conjunctions are classified as subordinating in English. They are after, although, though, till, because, if, once, than, etc.

These words join a dependent clause with a main clause. So, unlike the coordinating, the subordinating do not take equal grammatical parts on both sides.


• Tonya went running even though it was late.

Here, “Tonya went running” is the main clause and “even though it was late” is the dependent clause.

You can interchange the positions of the clauses too, this way:

• Even though it was late, Tonya went running.

Whichever structuring you use, remember always to place the subordinating before a subordinate or dependent clause.

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